Table 16
Birth Defect Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and Birth Year,
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2005-2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth

Birth Defects

Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
A Central Nervous System (All) 47.0 44.4 46.0 41.9 42.3 39.4 39.1 40.3 43.2 55.3 48.4 55.0 55.7 68.6 48.5
  A01 Anencephalus 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.6 1.5 1.3 0.9 1.3 1.2 0.9 1.4 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.5
  A02 Spina Bifida w/o Anencephaly 4.6 5.3 5.6 5.0 5.6 3.5 5.0 4.4 4.5 4.0 3.7 4.1 4.1 3.5 4.5
  A03 Hydrocephalus w/o Spina Bifida 9.0 11.3 10.7 11.3 10.6 9.7 8.6 8.2 7.9 7.5 7.4 7.5 7.0 9.9 5.6
  A04 Encephalocele 1.1 1.7 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.8 1.3 1.1 1.2 0.8 1.8 1.3 0.5
  A05 Microcephalus 12.4 10.7 11.7 11.4 8.3 9.2 10.5 10.8 9.8 15.9 14.9 16.5 15.7 19.6 12.8
  A06 Holoprosencephaly --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- - -
  A99 Other CNS Anomalies 25.7 20.2 22.2 19.7 20.9 19.6 18.2 19.8 25.1 34.2 23.6 30.8 37.2 48.2 31.3
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
B Eye (All) 31.6 29.9 25.5 25.6 27.3 25.9 25.6 29.6 28.8 39.0 43.4 46.7 41.1 35.5 27.9
  B01 Anopthalmos
/Micropthalmos
1.6 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.2 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.2 1.9 1.5
  B02 Congenital Cataract 2.1 3.0 1.7 2.2 2.6 1.4 2.6 2.7 1.7 2.0 2.0 1.2 2.0 2.3 2.4
  B03 Aniridia 0.3 0.5 * * * - * * * 0.3 * 0.5 * * *
  B99 Other Eye Anomalies 29.4 27.2 23.9 22.9 24.8 24.5 23.1 27.2 27.3 36.7 41.2 45.0 38.7 32.8 25.5
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
C Ear, Face and Neck (All) 23.7 20.9 16.2 15.2 18.2 14.7 16.0 17.1 18.0 35.0 22.0 29.8 36.8 47.3 39.4
  C01 Anotia/Microtia 1.7 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.7 2.1 1.7 1.9 1.2 1.0 2.4 2.6 2.2
  C99 Other Ear, Face &
Neck Anomalies
23.3 20.6 16.1 14.7 17.7 14.3 15.4 16.6 17.3 34.6 21.8 29.7 36.0 46.8 39.1

Table 16
Birth Defect Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and Birth Year,
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2005-2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth
(Continued)

Birth Defects

Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
D Heart & Circulatory System (All) 207.3 220.3 225.9 202.1 205.5 177.0 174.0 184.1 201.5 220.6 199.5 241.8 200.8 244.3 216.2
  D01 Common Truncus 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.8 0.6 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.0 0.7
  D02 Transposition of Great
Vessels
4.7 5.5 4.8 3.4 4.1 4.1 4.4 4.0 4.5 5.3 4.4 5.1 5.5 6.2 5.3
  D03 Tetralogy of Fallot 5.6 5.6 6.0 5.0 6.8 4.2 6.3 6.5 5.7 5.3 5.8 5.2 5.4 6.0 3.9
  D04 Ventricular Septal Defect 46.0 47.5 45.8 43.2 46.2 36.3 39.5 41.5 48.5 50.0 43.0 54.7 48.2 55.3 49.0
  D05 Atrial Septal Defect 112.5 98.9 102.9 87.1 98.0 87.3 84.4 103.7 118.0 138.0 110.9 153.8 122.9 160.3 142.0
  D06 Atrioventricular Septal Defect (Endocardial Cushion Defect) 4.5 5.6 6.4 5.2 5.7 4.8 5.5 6.1 6.3 2.6 5.2 5.4 2.2 - -
  D07 Pulmonary Valve
Atresi& Stenosis
11.1 14.2 13.5 12.0 11.5 8.2 11.2 9.9 11.5 10.3 8.5 10.8 10.2 11.1 11.1
  D08 Tricuspid Valve
Atresi& Stenosis
1.3 1.8 0.9 1.5 1.8 0.9 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.7 0.7 0.7 1.1
  D09 Ebstein's Anomaly 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.6 1.1 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.2 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.5 *
  D10 Aortic Valve Stenosis 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.3 1.8 1.8 2.5 2.7 2.4 1.9 2.4 2.5 2.9 2.1
  D11 Hypoplastic Left Heart
Syndrome
4.2 5.1 3.9 4.4 4.0 4.8 3.4 3.9 5.5 3.9 4.7 4.6 3.7 3.9 2.8
  D12 Patent Ductus Arteriosis 69.5 77.1 77.5 65.9 69.2 53.9 52.9 64.5 65.4 75.2 53.4 87.5 68.2 90.3 76.6
  D13 Coarctation of Aorta 7.2 6.3 7.5 7.0 7.3 4.8 5.8 6.6 8.5 8.1 8.2 8.7 6.9 8.8 7.9
  D14 Pulmonary Artery Anomalies 15.7 24.0 24.8 20.7 21.4 19.9 18.0 11.3 4.1 11.4 3.8 5.7 12.8 19.8 15.2
  D15 Interrupted Aortic Arch 0.6 0.5 1.0 * 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.7 1.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 * - -
  D16 Total Anomalous Pulmonary
Venous Return (or connection)
1.1 1.9 1.7 0.6 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.0 1.7 0.6 1.4 1.2 * - -
  D17 Double Outlet Right Ventricle 2.1 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.4 3.4 2.2 2.9 1.3 2.3 2.9 1.0 - -
  D18 Common Ventricel 1.4 1.7 1.8 1.5 2.1 1.1 2.6 1.2 2.5 0.8 1.7 1.7 0.8 - -
  D99 Other Heart &
Circulatory System
Anomalies
75.6 81.0 93.5 80.2 77.7 67.8 66.9 62.6 71.1 75.9 71.9 87.6 74.9 76.0 68.7
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
E Respiratory System (All) 54.9 59.4 83.2 70.5 41.0 34.9 41.8 42.5 53.3 56.6 52.6 64.0 57.0 59.5 49.8
  E01 Lung Agenesis/
Hypoplasia
5.6 7.6 6.0 5.1 6.3 7.5 9.6 6.6 5.7 3.5 5.5 8.9 2.2 * *
  E02 Choanal Atresia 1.8 1.9 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.9 2.0 1.8 2.3 1.9 2.7 2.0 1.8 2.0 1.1
  E99 Other Respiratory
System Anomalies
49.5 51.8 77.6 65.8 35.4 27.6 32.5 35.9 47.8 53.1 47.0 56.9 54.1 58.0 49.3
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
F Cleft Palate & Cleft Lip 16.6 16.3 18.1 16.6 15.5 18.5 15.0 15.4 15.4 17.1 16.2 17.9 20.0 15.3 15.9
  F01 Cleft Palate 6.1 6.3 6.7 6.8 5.8 7.7 4.8 4.3 4.8 6.4 6.9 7.0 7.6 5.1 5.6
  F02 Cleft Lip w & w/o Cleft Palate 10.5 10.0 11.4 9.8 9.8 10.8 10.2 11.1 10.5 10.6 9.3 11.0 12.4 10.2 10.3

Table 16
Birth Defect Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and Birth Year,
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2005-2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth
(Continued)

Birth Defects

Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
G Upper Alimentary Caanal/
Digestive System (All)
52.0 54.1 64.6 58.0 57.3 53.1 46.1 46.3 49.8 48.7 51.0 52.1 42.5 54.7 43.3
  G01 Esophageal Atresia/
Tracheoesophageal Fistula
2.5 3.4 2.8 3.2 2.4 1.2 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.8 2.5 1.9 1.7 2.4
  G02 Rectal & Large Intestinal
Atresia/Stenosis
4.7 4.9 6.0 4.4 4.5 4.0 5.2 5.2 4.5 4.5 6.0 4.6 3.6 4.6 3.6
  G03 Pyloric Stenosis 16.4 15.5 18.6 16.8 19.9 18.7 13.8 13.8 16.0 15.9 12.8 16.7 15.1 19.5 15.4
  G04 Hirshsprung's Disease
(congenital megacolon)
3.7 2.9 3.0 2.7 3.0 2.1 4.3 3.9 3.3 4.7 3.6 3.2 4.6 6.8 5.4
  G05 Biliary Atresia 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 0.7 1.2 1.8 1.4
  G99 Other Upper
Alimentary Canal
/Digestive System Anomalies
28.0 30.8 36.7 33.2 30.2 28.8 23.0 24.4 27.5 25.3 29.5 30.1 21.3 25.4 20.2
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
H Genital & Urinary Systems 148.6 159.5 160.1 146.8 128.1 107.4 107.9 141.4 147.5 166.7 163.5 188.4 158.4 172.0 150.6
  H01 Renal Agenesis/
Hypoplasia
6.0 5.7 5.0 6.6 7.0 4.5 5.1 4.9 5.7 6.6 7.7 7.9 5.0 7.0 5.3
  H02 Bladder Exstrophy &
Cloacal Exstrophy
0.2 0.5 * * * * * * - 0.3 * * * * *
  H03 Obstructive Genitourinary
Defects
28.6 26.2 24.4 23.5 23.4 17.8 18.0 24.4 28.6 37.5 27.5 39.0 37.4 43.1 40.5
  H04 Hypospadias 34.4 37.2 26.0 29.3 35.6 29.6 32.0 39.1 31.9 37.4 35.4 42.4 35.9 40.5 32.9
  H05 Epispadias 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.9 * * 0.9 0.5 1.2 0.7 0.7 - -
  H99 Other Genital
& Urinary System
Anomalies
101.1 113.9 123.0 108.6 81.2 71.0 70.2 93.5 104.5 109.1 114.1 127.4 101.1 108.9 93.6

Table 16
Birth Defect Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and Birth Year,
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2005-2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth
(Continued)

Birth Defects

Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
I Musculoskeletal System (All) 190.5 182.6 198.6 189.6 143.6 124.3 159.3 175.8 218.8 218.0 247.6 259.0 198.1 211.8 172.4
  I01 Upper Limb Reduction
Deformities
2.6 2.2 2.2 3.1 3.2 2.5 3.0 2.8 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.8 1.7 2.9 2.0
  I02 Lower Limb Reduction
Deformities
2.3 2.9 2.8 2.0 1.8 2.8 1.9 2.8 3.1 2.0 2.1 2.7 1.2 2.0 2.0
  I03a Exomphalos/
Omphalocele
--- --- --- --- --- --- 2.0 1.9 2.4 2.3 1.5 1.3 1.9 2.8 4.2
  I03b Gastroschisis --- --- --- --- --- --- 5.6 4.9 3.9 4.1 3.8 4.7 3.7 5.0 3.3
  I03c Prune Belly Syndrome,
Congenital Hernia of Bladder
4.1 6.5 7.5 6.9 6.0 5.1 2.7 1.8 2.7 2.6 4.4 3.0 1.1 2.1 2.5
  I04 Congenital Hip Dislocation 10.3 10.1 13.3 8.7 12.9 12.3 11.1 12.7 11.2 8.2 9.2 8.0 8.3 8.5 6.9
  I05 Diaphragmatic Hernia 3.3 2.9 4.1 3.4 3.2 3.9 3.6 3.5 2.4 3.1 2.6 4.2 3.0 3.7 2.3
  I99 Other Musculoskeletal
System
174.7 167.5 180.7 175.6 128.2 107.6 141.2 157.9 202.0 203.3 232.5 243.0 186.7 196.1 156.9
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
J Integument (All) 101.9 50.0 101.1 40.4 112.9 103.9 77.3 95.4 73.5 136.6 144.6 200.9 118.3 121.8 95.9
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
K Chromosomal Anomalies 26.0 25.1 25.7 23.3 26.3 25.6 26.5 24.9 28.2 26.7 27.1 26.5 25.1 28.0 26.8
  K01 Trisomy 13 0.8 1.3 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.6 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.8
  K02 Down Syndrome 13.2 14.0 14.5 11.9 13.3 12.2 15.4 12.5 14.2 12.6 12.6 12.7 11.0 12.1 14.6
  K03 Trisomy 18 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.9 1.6 1.0 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 2.2 1.0 0.9
  K04 Chromosome 22q11.2
Deletion Syndrome
--- --- --- 0.6 0.7 0.5 * 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.6 * * - -
  K05 Turner Syndrome 0.4 0.7 1.2 0.5 0.5 * * * * * * * - - -
  K99 Other Chromosomal
Anomalies
11.5 9.5 8.7 10.1 10.4 12.1 10.2 11.9 13.4 12.8 13.7 12.3 11.9 14.9 11.4
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
L Other and Unspecified
Birth Defects
133.9 49.4 38.9 31.7 21.7 17.7 169.9 169.9 192.0 218.7 197.3 231.0 204.4 212.4 248.7
   

Table 16
Birth Defect Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and Birth Year,
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2005-2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth
(Continued)

Other Reportable Conditions

Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
M Infectious Conditions
Occurring in the Perinatal
Period
5.2 3.5 4.0 2.6 7.1 5.9 4.1 4.7 6.8 5.9 6.4 7.8 5.5 5.4 4.2
  M01 Syphilis 1.4 1.1 1.0 * 2.3 2.2 0.8 0.7 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.7 1.2 1.3 0.8
  M02 Other Infections 3.8 2.4 3.0 2.2 4.8 3.7 3.3 4.0 5.6 4.3 4.6 5.1 4.4 4.0 3.4
  M03 Zika Virus Disease - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
N Familial/Congenital
Neoplasms
1.3 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 * 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.8 1.0 1.5
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
O Endocrine/Metabolic
Disorders
59.6 45.7 47.9 40.4 50.4 40.7 49.9 49.7 68.2 77.7 72.2 82.5 74.0 88.9 70.6
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
P Diseases of the Blood
& Blood Forming Organs
32.3 26.0 24.6 21.2 25.9 21.8 29.7 33.3 34.0 41.4 39.5 45.7 43.6 44.4 33.8
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
Q Other Diseases of the
Central and Peripheral
Nervous System
36.2 34.4 34.8 31.7 31.6 30.1 29.7 37.6 38.0 40.7 39.2 48.0 40.6 44.5 31.1
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
R Other Diseases of the Eye 60.3 67.5 67.3 67.8 65.7 53.8 52.9 59.2 58.0 57.9 66.3 66.9 60.1 56.4 39.4
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
S Hearing Deficiency 69.1 44.6 42.5 37.4 43.5 39.3 54.0 86.6 91.2 94.4 100.8 105.7 71.6 111.3 82.4
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
T Other Diseases of the
Heart & Circulatory System
42.3 34.4 40.9 37.3 40.3 36.3 37.9 38.7 54.4 46.3 49.6 49.9 44.3 47.7 40.0

Table 16
Birth Defect Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and Birth Year,
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2005-2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth
(Continued)

Other Reportable Conditions

Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
U Other Diseases of the
Gastrointestinal System
53.5 62.1 55.7 54.5 56.1 42.0 50.2 48.9 56.7 53.6 58.2 63.8 54.5 50.1 41.3
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
V Other Diseases of the
Genital and Urinary Systems
8.9 4.9 4.7 3.2 3.1 4.6 5.1 5.5 6.1 16.0 7.9 11.3 15.4 22.5 23.2
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
X Other Musculoskeletal
System Diseases
0.2 * * * * * * * * 0.2 0.5 * * * -
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
Y Maternal Exposures
Affecting Fetus
45.7 24.8 25.2 16.6 26.2 23.0 27.4 39.9 43.6 75.8 47.9 78.1 60.2 102.6 90.4
  Y01 Newborn Affected by
Maternal use of Alcohol
1.1 1.7 1.8 1.1 0.5 0.5 1.1 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.9 0.7 1.0 *
  Y02 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- - -
  Y99 Other Maternal Exposures
Affecting the Fetus
44.9 23.3 23.7 15.9 25.9 22.5 26.6 38.7 43.0 75.0 46.7 77.0 60.0 101.9 90.1
Diagnostic Grouping2005
to
2017
200520062007200820092010201120122013
to
2017
20132014201520162017
One or More
Reportable Diagnosis 
997.5 885.6 932.4 803.7 809.9 694.0 855.4 951.4 1,030.2 1,214.6 1,179.6 1,365.3 1,123.6 1,254.4 1,147.5
   

Notes:
Rates are per 10,000 Michigan Born Resident Live Births. Rates include all children reported with a birth defect who were born in Michigan and whose mother was a resident at the time of birth. This enables the calculation of birth defects prevalence rates. Birth defect statistics sometimes reflect trends related to data reporting or new testing. See Data Quality Considerations for further details.
*: A rate is not calculated when there are fewer than 6 events, because the width of the confidence interval would negate any usefulness for comparative purposes.
Conditions are reportable if identified within the first two years of a child's life. The prevalence frequencies used to calculate the rates in this table represent cases diagnosed within the first year of life.
Prior to October 2015, diagnoses were coded using the 9th revision to the International Classification of Diseases - ICD–9–CM.  (See Birth Defect Groups and ICD–9–CM Diagnosis Codes for the codes used to categorize birth defects.) After October 2015, the Birth Defect registry coded diagnoses using ICD–10–CM. (See Birth Defect Groups and ICD–10–CM Diagnosis Codes for the codes used to categorize birth defects.) Diagnostic Code Groupings used in analysis of birth defects are defined by the Centers for Disease Control.
Source: Michigan Birth Defects Registry, Division for Vital Records & Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Health & Human Services
Reports Processed through May 28, 2020

Last Updated on August 17, 2020