Table 9
Birth Defect Numbers & Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and
By Race & Hispanic Ancestry of Mother
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2012 - 2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth
Six-year Birth Defect Totals & Birth Defect Prevalence Rates

Birth Defects

  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
A Central Nervous System (All) 3,576 2,205 939 12 75 233 53.2 47.6 73.4 33.4 30.6 50.8
  A01 Anencephalus 64 46 9 - - 8 1.0 1.0 0.7 - - 1.7
  A02 Spina Bifida w/o Anencephaly 273 199 39 - 6 24 4.1 4.3 3.0 - 2.4 5.2
  A03 Hydrocephalus w/o Spina Bifida 508 273 176 3 6 31 7.6 5.9 13.8 * 2.4 6.8
  A04 Encephalocele 79 43 21 - 3 8 1.2 0.9 1.6 - * 1.7
  A05 Microcephalus 1,002 502 380 3 21 59 14.9 10.8 29.7 * 8.6 12.9
  A06 Holoprosencephaly --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
  A99 Other CNS Anomalies 2,197 1,465 467 7 44 144 32.7 31.6 36.5 19.5 17.9 31.4
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
B Eye (All) 2,504 1,590 576 5 104 144 37.3 34.3 45.0 * 42.4 31.4
  B01 Anopthalmos
/Micropthalmos
97 67 25 1 1 2 1.4 1.4 2.0 * * *
  B02 Congenital Cataract 130 79 34 1 4 7 1.9 1.7 2.7 * * 1.5
  B03 Aniridia 20 14 4 - 1 - 0.3 0.3 * - * -
  B99 Other Eye Anomalies 2,361 1,498 541 4 100 137 35.1 32.3 42.3 * 40.8 29.9
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
C Ear, Face and Neck (All) 2,161 1,294 537 7 67 192 32.2 27.9 42.0 19.5 27.3 41.8
  C01 Anotia/Microtia 124 81 10 - 3 23 1.8 1.7 0.8 - * 5.0
  C99 Other Ear, Face &
Neck Anomalies
2,133 1,275 536 7 66 187 31.8 27.5 41.9 19.5 26.9 40.7

Table 9
Birth Defect Numbers & Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and
By Race & Hispanic Ancestry of Mother
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2012 - 2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth
Six-year Birth Defect Totals & Birth Defect Prevalence Rates
(Continued)

Birth Defects

  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
D Heart & Circulatory System (All) 14,602 9,106 3,737 68 370 925 217.4 196.5 292.1 189.4 150.9 201.6
  D01 Common Truncus 85 45 30 - 3 5 1.3 1.0 2.3 - * *
  D02 Transposition of Great
Vessels
348 245 62 - 8 22 5.2 5.3 4.8 - 3.3 4.8
  D03 Tetralogy of Fallot 358 229 83 1 12 27 5.3 4.9 6.5 * 4.9 5.9
  D04 Ventricular Septal Defect 3,344 2,212 678 15 83 257 49.8 47.7 53.0 41.8 33.8 56.0
  D05 Atrial Septal Defect 9,046 5,504 2,458 45 218 582 134.7 118.8 192.1 125.3 88.9 126.8
  D06 Atrioventricular Septal Defect (Endocardial Cushion Defect) 215 146 45 - 7 14 3.2 3.2 3.5 - 2.9 3.1
  D07 Pulmonary Valve
Atresi& Stenosis
706 420 198 5 14 49 10.5 9.1 15.5 * 5.7 10.7
  D08 Tricuspid Valve
Atresi& Stenosis
78 52 16 - 2 6 1.2 1.1 1.3 - * 1.3
  D09 Ebstein's Anomaly 51 41 9 - - 1 0.8 0.9 0.7 - - *
  D10 Aortic Valve Stenosis 162 119 24 1 4 11 2.4 2.6 1.9 * * 2.4
  D11 Hypoplastic Left Heart
Syndrome
283 187 59 1 6 19 4.2 4.0 4.6 * 2.4 4.1
  D12 Patent Ductus Arteriosis 4,941 2,788 1,607 18 116 294 73.6 60.2 125.6 50.1 47.3 64.1
  D13 Coarctation of Aorta 549 387 106 2 9 33 8.2 8.4 8.3 * 3.7 7.2
  D14 Pulmonary Artery Anomalies 685 432 179 1 19 43 10.2 9.3 14.0 * 7.7 9.4
  D15 Interrupted Aortic Arch 33 22 8 1 1 1 0.5 0.5 0.6 * * *
  D16 Total Anomalous Pulmonary
Venous Return (or connection)
54 35 11 - 1 6 0.8 0.8 0.9 - * 1.3
  D17 Double Outlet Right Ventricle 102 58 26 - 4 13 1.5 1.3 2.0 - * 2.8
  D18 Common Ventricel 75 34 26 - 2 9 1.1 0.7 2.0 - * 2.0
  D99 Other Heart &
Circulatory System
Anomalies
5,043 3,335 1,061 23 141 354 75.1 72.0 82.9 64.0 57.5 77.1
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
E Respiratory System (All) 3,765 2,173 1,142 14 75 229 56.1 46.9 89.3 39.0 30.6 49.9
  E01 Lung Agenesis/
Hypoplasia
261 167 53 - 7 25 3.9 3.6 4.1 - 2.9 5.4
  E02 Choanal Atresia 133 83 35 2 1 10 2.0 1.8 2.7 * * 2.2
  E99 Other Respiratory
System Anomalies
3,506 2,010 1,085 12 69 208 52.2 43.4 84.8 33.4 28.1 45.3
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
F Cleft Palate & Cleft Lip 1,127 824 154 5 33 76 16.8 17.8 12.0 * 13.5 16.6
  F01 Cleft Palate 415 306 53 4 11 28 6.2 6.6 4.1 * 4.5 6.1
  F02 Cleft Lip w & w/o Cleft Palate 712 518 101 1 22 48 10.6 11.2 7.9 * 9.0 10.5

Table 9
Birth Defect Numbers & Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and
By Race & Hispanic Ancestry of Mother
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2012 - 2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth
Six-year Birth Defect Totals & Birth Defect Prevalence Rates
(Continued)

Birth Defects

  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
G Upper Alimentary Caanal/
Digestive System (All)
3,286 2,267 641 4 60 232 48.9 48.9 50.1 * 24.5 50.6
  G01 Esophageal Atresia/
Tracheoesophageal Fistula
152 117 23 - 5 5 2.3 2.5 1.8 - * *
  G02 Rectal & Large Intestinal
Atresia/Stenosis
302 203 54 - 11 24 4.5 4.4 4.2 - 4.5 5.2
  G03 Pyloric Stenosis 1,070 785 147 2 12 95 15.9 16.9 11.5 * 4.9 20.7
  G04 Hirshsprung's Disease
(congenital megacolon)
299 200 65 1 7 21 4.5 4.3 5.1 * 2.9 4.6
  G05 Biliary Atresia 84 42 30 1 2 6 1.3 0.9 2.3 * * 1.3
  G99 Other Upper
Alimentary Canal
/Digestive System Anomalies
1,727 1,157 387 1 36 106 25.7 25.0 30.2 * 14.7 23.1
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
H Genital & Urinary Systems 10,981 7,259 2,356 25 306 662 163.5 156.6 184.1 69.6 124.8 144.3
  H01 Renal Agenesis/
Hypoplasia
432 294 92 4 7 20 6.4 6.3 7.2 * 2.9 4.4
  H02 Bladder Exstrophy &
Cloacal Exstrophy
17 16 1 - - - 0.3 0.3 * - - -
  H03 Obstructive Genitourinary
Defects
2,418 1,697 355 4 71 203 36.0 36.6 27.7 * 29.0 44.2
  H04 Hypospadias 2,453 1,808 428 6 53 89 36.5 39.0 33.4 16.7 21.6 19.4
  H05 Epispadias 39 24 11 - - 3 0.6 0.5 0.9 - - *
  H99 Other Genital
& Urinary System
Anomalies
7,277 4,566 1,803 16 207 429 108.3 98.5 140.9 44.6 84.4 93.5

Table 9
Birth Defect Numbers & Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and
By Race & Hispanic Ancestry of Mother
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2012 - 2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth
Six-year Birth Defect Totals & Birth Defect Prevalence Rates
(Continued)

Birth Defects

  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
I Musculoskeletal System (All) 14,653 9,409 3,359 35 497 886 218.1 203.0 262.5 97.5 202.7 193.1
  I01 Upper Limb Reduction
Deformities
162 117 32 - 3 10 2.4 2.5 2.5 - * 2.2
  I02 Lower Limb Reduction
Deformities
147 98 36 - 4 7 2.2 2.1 2.8 - * 1.5
  I03a Exomphalos/
Omphalocele
157 74 63 - 3 11 2.3 1.6 4.9 - * 2.4
  I03b Gastroschisis 273 194 46 2 4 22 4.1 4.2 3.6 * * 4.8
  I03c Prune Belly Syndrome,
Congenital Hernia of Bladder
175 78 83 - 4 7 2.6 1.7 6.5 - * 1.5
  I04 Congenital Hip Dislocation 582 410 90 2 26 29 8.7 8.8 7.0 * 10.6 6.3
  I05 Diaphragmatic Hernia 203 139 35 1 4 15 3.0 3.0 2.7 * * 3.3
  I99 Other Musculoskeletal
System
13,642 8,773 3,106 31 470 826 203.1 189.3 242.7 86.3 191.7 180.0
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
J Integument (All) 8,467 2,467 4,559 24 450 624 126.1 53.2 356.3 66.8 183.5 136.0
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
K Chromosomal Anomalies 1,811 1,271 329 2 43 123 27.0 27.4 25.7 * 17.5 26.8
  K01 Trisomy 13 49 24 16 - 1 5 0.7 0.5 1.3 - * *
  K02 Down Syndrome 865 588 162 - 22 71 12.9 12.7 12.7 - 9.0 15.5
  K03 Trisomy 18 92 62 18 - 3 7 1.4 1.3 1.4 - * 1.5
  K04 Chromosome 22q11.2
Deletion Syndrome
20 15 3 - 1 - 0.3 0.3 * - * -
  K05 Turner Syndrome 6 3 3 - - - 0.1 * * - - -
  K99 Other Chromosomal
Anomalies
869 638 144 2 19 49 12.9 13.8 11.3 * 7.7 10.7
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
L Other and Unspecified
Birth Defects
14,390 9,010 3,147 40 881 1,020 214.2 194.4 245.9 111.4 359.3 222.3

Table 9
Birth Defect Numbers & Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and
By Race & Hispanic Ancestry of Mother
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2012 - 2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth
Six-year Birth Defect Totals & Birth Defect Prevalence Rates
(Continued)

Other Reportable Conditions

  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
M Infectious Conditions
Occurring in the Perinatal
Period
404 156 214 1 5 16 6.0 3.4 16.7 * * 3.5
  M01 Syphilis 102 7 87 - - 4 1.5 0.2 6.8 - - *
  M02 Other Infections 304 149 129 1 5 12 4.5 3.2 10.1 * * 2.6
  M03 Zika Virus Disease - - - - - - - - - - - -
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
N Familial/Congenital
Neoplasms
90 40 37 - 4 5 1.3 0.9 2.9 - * *
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
O Endocrine/Metabolic
Disorders
5,112 3,045 1,427 25 192 261 76.1 65.7 111.5 69.6 78.3 56.9
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
P Diseases of the Blood
& Blood Forming Organs
2,699 681 1,830 5 45 72 40.2 14.7 143.0 * 18.4 15.7
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
Q Other Diseases of the
Central and Peripheral
Nervous System
2,705 1,702 706 11 61 152 40.3 36.7 55.2 30.6 24.9 33.1
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
R Other Diseases of the Eye 3,891 2,436 1,037 13 101 216 57.9 52.6 81.0 36.2 41.2 47.1
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
S Hearing Deficiency 6,307 3,513 1,898 13 249 377 93.9 75.8 148.3 36.2 101.5 82.2
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
T Other Diseases of the
Heart & Circulatory System
3,202 1,926 901 12 72 208 47.7 41.6 70.4 33.4 29.4 45.3

Table 9
Birth Defect Numbers & Prevalence Rates by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group and
By Race & Hispanic Ancestry of Mother
Michigan Resident Children Born in Michigan During 2012 - 2017,
Cases Diagnosed within One Year from Birth
Six-year Birth Defect Totals & Birth Defect Prevalence Rates
(Continued)

Other Reportable Conditions

  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
U Other Diseases of the
Gastrointestinal System
3,637 2,267 974 11 82 195 54.1 48.9 76.1 30.6 33.4 42.5
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
V Other Diseases of the
Genital and Urinary Systems
966 655 183 - 31 61 14.4 14.1 14.3 - 12.6 13.3
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
X Other Musculoskeletal
System Diseases
16 7 9 - - - 0.2 0.2 0.7 - - -
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
Y Maternal Exposures
Affecting Fetus
4,729 3,203 1,229 51 17 192 70.4 69.1 96.1 142.0 6.9 41.8
  Y01 Newborn Affected by
Maternal use of Alcohol
73 35 32 1 - 3 1.1 0.8 2.5 * - *
  Y02 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
  Y99 Other Maternal Exposures
Affecting the Fetus
4,682 3,179 1,208 50 17 191 69.7 68.6 94.4 139.2 6.9 41.6
  Diagnostic Grouping Number by Race Prevalence Rate by Race
Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic Total White Black Native
American
Asian Hispanic
One or More
Reportable Diagnosis 
79,519 46,953 22,172 259 2,860 4,967 1,183.8 1,013.2 1,732.8 721.2 1,166.3 1,082.4

Notes:

Race or Hispanic Ancestry: Race without mention of Hispanic ancestry, or Hispanic ancestry with or without mention of race.

Rates Are Per 10,000 Michigan Born Resident Live Births.  Rates include all children reported with a birth defect who were born in Michigan and whose mother was a resident at the time of birth. This enables the calculation of birth defects prevalence rates. Birth defect statistics sometimes reflect trends related to data reporting or new testing. See Data Quality Considerations for further details.
Symbols: *: Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision. •  -: A dash represents quantity zero. •  0.0: Quanity more than zero but less than 0.05.
Conditions are reportable if identified within the first two years of a child's life. The prevalence frequencies used to calculate the rates in this table represent cases diagnosed within the first year of life.
Prior to October 2015, diagnoses were coded using the 9th revision to the International Classification of Diseases - ICD–9–CM.  (See Birth Defect Groups and ICD–9–CM Diagnosis Codes for the codes used to categorize birth defects.) After October 2015, the Birth Defect registry coded diagnoses using ICD–10–CM. (See Birth Defect Groups and ICD–10–CM Diagnosis Codes for the codes used to categorize birth defects.) Diagnostic Code Groupings used in analysis of birth defects are defined by the Centers for Disease Control.
Source: Michigan Birth Defects Registry, Division for Vital Records & Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Health & Human Services
Reports Processed through May 28, 2020

Last Updated on August 17, 2020