Percent of Live Births by Maternal Risk Factors in Pregnancy
By Race and Ancestry of Mother,
Michigan Residents, 2019

Maternal Risk Factors Race Ancestry
All Races White Black American
Indian
Asian &
Pacific
Islander
All Other Races Hispanic Arab
Diabetes                
Prepregnancy 0.9 0.8 1.2 * 0.9 1.7 1.2 0.9
Gestational 6.1 6.2 4.3 7.1 12.1 7.0 6.4 8.0
Hypertension                
Prepregnancy 2.1 1.8 3.6 1.1 0.8 1.2 1.2 0.9
Gestational1 8.8 9.1 9.1 7.6 5.3 6.7 6.4 4.0
Previous Cesarean Delivery                
Yes 14.7 14.5 15.4 14.0 14.0 15.9 15.0 16.2
More than one 4.7 4.5 5.8 5.4 2.4 5.5 5.5 6.0
Previous preterm birth 3.7 3.3 5.6 5.1 2.0 3.4 3.6 3.1
Other previous poor outcome2 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.6 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.8
Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy 1.1 1.1 1.2 * 1.2 1.4 1.1 1.7
Pregnancy by infertility treatment 1.4 1.6 0.4 * 2.4 0.9 0.7 2.4
None of the above risks 66.6 66.7 66.0 68.1 67.0 68.0 69.0 68.0
Exposure to Tobacco 18.1 19.4 17.3 40.9 4.4 9.7 14.0 6.5
Mother smoked while pregnant3 13.6 14.9 12.2 32.7 1.7 5.3 9.4 2.5
Mother exposed to smokers at home 11.0 12.2 8.9 25.8 3.5 6.4 9.2 5.4
Mother ever smoked 15.7 17.4 13.3 33.8 2.5 6.3 11.3 3.1

 

Notes: 1Gestational Hypertension includes pregnancy induced hypertension, preeclampsia and eclampsia.
2The category "Other previous poor outcome" includes perinatal deaths, small for gestation age births, or intrauterine growth-restricted births.
3Mothers who had a history of smoking, but never quit, plus those who quit at some point between estimated conception and birth date.

For information regarding alcohol consumption and other behaviorial risk factors, see Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring (PRAMS) at www.michigan.gov/prams.

Source:

2019 Michigan Resident Birth Files, Division for Vital Records & Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Health & Human Services.