Race & Ancestry of MotherKessner Index
TotalAdequateIntermediateInadequate
Live BirthsLow BirthweightRateLive BirthsLow BirthweightRateLive BirthsLow BirthweightRateLive BirthsLow BirthweightRate
Number of Low Birthweight Live Births and Rate of Low Birthweight Live Births by Race & Ancestry of Mother
and Kessner Index
Michigan 2016
Total113,374  9,708  85.677,709  5,652  72.725,040  2,516  100.510,613  1,539  145.0
White83,388  5,860  70.359,920  3,632  60.617,246  1,484  86.06,213  744  119.7
Black21,523  3,092  143.712,201  1,566  128.45,944  832  140.03,377  693  205.2
American Indian694  70  100.9429  29  67.6190  28  147.475  13  173.3
Asian & Pacific Islander4,548  423  93.03,301  279  84.5926  106  114.5321  38  118.4
Hispanic7,759  573  73.84,639  290  62.52,032  192  94.51,087  91  83.7
Mid Easterner5,007  385  76.93,364  244  72.51,028  90  87.5615  51  82.9

Notes:

Rates are per 1,000 live births.


Kessner Index: The Kessner Index is a classification of prenatal care based on the month of pregnancy in which prenatal care began, the number of prenatal visits and the length of pregnancy (i.e. for shorter pregnancies, fewer prenatal visits constitute adequate care.)

Kessner Index Measurement Definitions:

Adequate: Care that began within the first trimester and included an average of at least one or two additional prenatal visits per month of gestation, depending on the length of gestation.

Intermediate: Care that began during the second trimester of pregnancy with correspondingly fewer visits, or began during the first trimester but with fewer visits than would be appropriate for the length of gestation.

Inadequate: When no care was received or if care began during the third trimester. It is also inadequate if care began during the first or second trimester but less than five visits occurred, when the length of gestation was 34 weeks or more. When the length of gestation was less than 34 weeks, care is defined as inadequate when care began during the first or second trimester but a number of visits less that four occurred, that number depending on the actual weeks of gestation.

Records with unknown level of prenatal care are included only in the total row.


Low Birthweight
Live births weighing less than 2,500 grams.

Source: 2016 Geocoded Michigan Birth Certificate Registry.
Division for Vital Records & Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Health & Human Services