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Age-Adjusted Pneumonia and Influenza Death Rates by Race and Sex
Michigan and United States Residents, 1980- 2012
Michigan
Year All Races White Black
Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female
1980 28.2 38.3 21.9 27.1 36.4 21.6 36.5 55.1 23.5
1981 26.2 37.0 19.9 25.2 35.4 19.5 34.1 49.5 23.1
1982 25.4 36.4 19.1 24.9 35.7 18.7 28.9 41.3 20.3
1983 30.9 41.2 24.4 30.0 39.6 24.1 39.0 55.4 27.3
1984 29.0 40.9 22.1 28.3 40.1 21.6 35.4 47.1 27.2
1985 31.9 43.8 25.1 31.6 43.9 24.9 32.3 42.4 25.4
1986 35.5 47.5 28.6 35.2 47.4 28.4 36.0 46.9 28.9
1987 32.6 43.2 26.8 32.0 42.3 26.5 36.6 48.8 28.6
1988 36.4 50.1 29.0 36.2 50.0 29.0 36.0 49.9 27.2
1989 35.0 46.7 28.4 34.4 45.8 28.3 38.3 53.2 27.6
1990 37.6 51.4 30.0 37.1 50.8 29.7 37.9 54.8 27.4
1991 35.0 47.1 28.0 34.3 46.6 27.5 38.1 48.5 30.8
1992 33.2 44.9 26.7 32.6 44.1 26.5 35.1 49.9 25.1
1993 35.9 47.8 29.0 34.7 46.2 28.3 41.7 58.3 30.5
1994 33.9 45.6 27.3 32.6 43.8 26.5 43.3 61.6 32.0
1995 34.7 44.9 29.0 33.6 42.8 28.7 42.8 63.5 29.6
1996 34.0 44.5 28.1 32.6 42.0 27.4 43.0 63.6 31.2
1997 31.2 42.0 24.9 30.0 40.9 23.9 39.2 49.9 32.2
1998 33.6 43.2 27.9 32.4 41.2 27.4 43.7 58.9 33.1
Note: The manner in which underlying cause of death is coded and classified was revised in 1999 to reflect changing medical opinion and practice. The comparability between classification schemes for this particular cause of death is lower (0.70), meaning that caution should be taken in drawing specific inferences from comparisons of mortality statistics over time.
1999 24.5 30.5 21.1 23.9 29.9 20.6 28.5 35.1 24.3
2000 19.3 23.6 16.8 18.6 22.5 16.5 23.5 30.8 18.5
2001 21.3 26.7 18.2 20.5 25.6 17.5 28.0 37.1 22.4
2002 20.4 25.8 17.3 19.9 24.9 17.0 24.1 34.2 18.6
2003 19.3 22.7 17.2 18.8 22.0 16.9 22.0 28.6 17.9
2004 19.3 22.9 17.3 18.5 21.6 16.8 23.6 32.1 18.8
2005 18.9 22.8 16.6 18.6 22.3 16.4 19.5 25.0 16.4
2006 15.8 19.5 13.5 15.4 18.7 13.3 18.7 26.2 14.3
2007 15.1 18.6 13.0 14.3 17.6 12.4 20.3 26.9 16.3
2008 17.1 20.8 14.7 16.3 19.5 14.3 22.5 31.0 17.1
2009 13.8 17.1 11.8 13.5 16.8 11.5 16.0 20.2 13.6
2010 13.5 16.8 11.4 12.9 15.8 10.9 18.9 25.3 14.7
2011 15.0 18.3 12.8 14.5 17.6 12.7 17.1 21.7 13.9
2012 13.3 16.0 11.5 13.2 15.8 11.5 13.7 16.6 11.5
United States
Year All Races White Black
Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female
1980 31.4 42.1 25.1 30.9 41.1 25.0 34.4 49.9 23.9
1981 30.0 40.4 23.8 29.7 39.8 23.9 31.4 46.0 21.3
1982 26.5 37.1 20.4 26.2 36.7 20.3 27.6 40.4 18.9
1983 29.8 40.7 23.5 29.6 40.3 23.6 29.9 44.9 20.0
1984 30.6 42.0 24.1 30.3 41.4 24.2 32.2 47.1 22.4
1985 34.5 46.8 27.6 34.3 46.3 27.6 35.8 51.6 25.5
1986 34.8 47.3 27.8 34.5 46.6 27.8 37.2 54.2 26.5
1987 33.8 45.4 27.1 33.5 44.8 27.2 35.5 52.2 25.0
1988 37.3 49.2 30.4 37.1 48.8 30.6 38.1 54.5 27.7
1989 35.9 46.7 29.7 35.4 45.7 29.6 39.7 55.5 29.6
1990 36.8 47.8 30.5 36.4 47.1 30.5 39.4 55.9 29.1
1991 34.9 45.6 28.9 34.5 44.9 28.8 37.5 52.5 28.5
1992 33.1 43.5 27.2 32.8 42.8 27.2 35.5 49.9 26.7
1993 35.2 45.4 29.4 34.9 44.7 29.4 37.8 52.1 29.0
1994 33.9 43.6 28.4 33.6 42.9 28.4 35.8 49.5 27.7
1995 33.8 42.9 28.4 33.3 42.1 28.3 36.8 50.0 28.8
1996 33.2 41.7 28.2 32.8 40.8 28.2 36.7 50.5 28.2
1997 33.6 42.0 28.6 33.3 41.5 28.5 36.0 47.7 28.9
1998 34.6 42.3 29.9 34.4 41.7 30.0 37.0 48.5 29.7
Note: The manner in which underlying cause of death is coded and classified was revised in 1999 to reflect changing medical opinion and practice. The comparability between classification schemes for this particular cause of death is lower (0.70), meaning that caution should be taken in drawing specific inferences from comparisons of mortality statistics over time.
1999 23.6 28.0 20.8 23.4 27.7 20.8 25.6 32.4 21.3
2000 23.7 28.1 20.9 23.5 27.7 20.9 25.8 32.7 21.4
2001 22.0 26.6 19.2 21.7 26.0 19.1 24.1 32.3 19.4
2002 22.6 27.0 19.9 22.6 26.7 19.9 24.0 30.8 20.0
2003 22.0 26.1 19.4 21.9 25.7 19.5 23.3 30.9 18.7
2004 19.8 23.7 17.3 19.6 23.3 17.2 22.3 29.1 18.2
2005 20.3 23.9 17.9 20.2 23.6 18.0 21.7 26.9 18.4
2006 17.8 21.2 15.5 17.7 20.9 15.5 19.6 24.4 16.7
2007 16.2 19.3 14.2 16.0 18.9 14.1 18.4 23.6 15.2
2008 16.9 19.9 15.0 16.7 19.5 14.9 18.9 23.2 16.1
2009 16.2 19.4 14.1 16.0 19.1 14.0 18.1 22.9 15.5
2010 15.1 18.2 13.1 14.9 17.8 13.0 16.8 21.3 14.1
2011 15.7 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---


Note: Age-adjusted death rates are based on age-specific death rates per 100,000 population in specified group. Age-adjusted death rates are computed by the direct method, using as the standard population the age distribution of the total population of the United States for the year 2000.

The underlying cause of death is the condition giving rise to the chain of events leading to death. Between January 1, 1979 and December 31, 1998, the underlying causes of death were classified in accordance with the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9), a coding structure developed by the World Health Organization. Starting January 1, 1999, causes of death were classified using the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). With each revision there are differences in classifying the underlying cause of death. Therefore, health statistics based on one revision are not directly comparable to the other revision without the use of comparability ratios.
(See "Comparability of cause of death between ICD–9 and ICD–10: Preliminary estimates." National vital statistics reports; vol 49 no. 2. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics. 2001. )
Before 1999, Pneumonia and Influenza deaths were classified with ICD-9 codes 480-487. Between 1999-2008, influenza and pneumonia deaths were classified using ICD-10 codes J10-J18. Starting in 2009, Pneumonia and Influenza deaths were classified using ICD-10 codes J09-J18.

Prior to rate calculations, death records with race not stated were randomly allocated to the white and black groups based on the proportion of Michigan Resident deaths in each of the racial categories for that year. Records with sex not stated were randomly assigned to male and female (50 percent each). Records with age not stated were allocated to the age group 85 and over.
Source: Division for Vital Records & Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Community Health; Population Estimate (latest update 9/2012), National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Census Populations With Bridged Race Categories .

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