Number of Low Birthweight Live Births by Race & Ancestry of Mother
and Kessner Index
Michigan 2016
Race & Ancestry of MotherKessner Index
TotalAdequateIntermediateInadequate
Total9,708  5,652  2,516  1,539  
White5,860  3,632  1,484  744  
Black3,092  1,566  832  693  
American Indian70  29  28  13  
Asian & Pacific Islander423  279  106  38  
All Other Races237  133  60  44  
Hispanic573  290  192  91  
Mid Easterner385  244  90  51  

Rate of Low Birthweight Live Births by Race & Ancestry of Mother
and Kessner Index
Michigan 2016
Race & Ancestry of MotherKessner Index
TotalAdequateIntermediateInadequate
Total85.672.7100.5145.0
White70.360.686.0119.7
Black143.7128.4140.0205.2
American Indian100.967.6147.4173.3
Asian & Pacific Islander93.084.5114.5118.4
All Other Races80.678.989.675.3
Hispanic73.862.594.583.7
Mid Easterner76.972.587.582.9

Live Births by Kessner Index
Michigan 2016
Race & Ancestry of MotherKessner Index
TotalAdequateIntermediateInadequate
Total113,374  77,709  25,040  10,613  
White83,388  59,920  17,246  6,213  
Black21,523  12,201  5,944  3,377  
American Indian694  429  190  75  
Asian & Pacific Islander4,548  3,301  926  321  
All Other Races2,940  1,685  670  584  
Hispanic7,759  4,639  2,032  1,087  
Mid Easterner5,007  3,364  1,028  615  


Notes:

Rates are per 1,000 live births.


Kessner Index: The Kessner Index is a classification of prenatal care based on the month of pregnancy in which prenatal care began, the number of prenatal visits and the length of pregnancy (i.e. for shorter pregnancies, fewer prenatal visits constitute adequate care.)

Kessner Index Measurement Definitions:

Adequate: Care that began within the first trimester and included an average of at least one or two additional prenatal visits per month of gestation, depending on the length of gestation.

Intermediate: Care that began during the second trimester of pregnancy with correspondingly fewer visits, or began during the first trimester but with fewer visits than would be appropriate for the length of gestation.

Inadequate: When no care was received or if care began during the third trimester. It is also inadequate if care began during the first or second trimester but less than five visits occurred, when the length of gestation was 34 weeks or more. When the length of gestation was less than 34 weeks, care is defined as inadequate when care began during the first or second trimester but a number of visits less that four occurred, that number depending on the actual weeks of gestation.

Records with unknown level of prenatal care are included only in the total row.


Low Birthweight
Live births weighing less than 2,500 grams.

Source: 2016 Geocoded Michigan Birth Certificate Registry.
Division for Vital Records & Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Health & Human Services