Number of Low Birthweight Live Births by Race & Ancestry of Mother
and Kessner Index
Michigan 2015
Race & Ancestry of MotherKessner Index
TotalAdequateIntermediateInadequate
Total9,611  5,715  2,458  1,436  
White5,789  3,626  1,452  709  
Black3,097  1,657  823  617  
American Indian54  29  20  5  
Asian & Pacific Islander353  231  83  39  
All Other Races299  164  75  60  
Hispanic582  334  164  84  
Mid Easterner343  208  84  51  

Rate of Low Birthweight Live Births by Race & Ancestry of Mother
and Kessner Index
Michigan 2015
Race & Ancestry of MotherKessner Index
TotalAdequateIntermediateInadequate
Total84.975.192.7135.0
White69.862.079.9112.5
Black144.3137.2134.6188.8
American Indian85.674.0103.6108.7
Asian & Pacific Islander90.885.791.9135.4
All Other Races73.671.170.287.3
Hispanic74.973.574.781.6
Mid Easterner70.466.879.972.3

Live Births by Kessner Index
Michigan 2015
Race & Ancestry of MotherKessner Index
TotalAdequateIntermediateInadequate
Total113,211  76,051  26,506  10,639  
White82,938  58,446  18,175  6,304  
Black21,457  12,075  6,113  3,268  
American Indian631  392  193  46  
Asian & Pacific Islander3,888  2,697  903  288  
All Other Races4,064  2,308  1,069  687  
Hispanic7,768  4,545  2,194  1,029  
Mid Easterner4,872  3,116  1,051  705  


Notes:

Rates are per 1,000 live births.


Kessner Index: The Kessner Index is a classification of prenatal care based on the month of pregnancy in which prenatal care began, the number of prenatal visits and the length of pregnancy (i.e. for shorter pregnancies, fewer prenatal visits constitute adequate care.)

Kessner Index Measurement Definitions:

Adequate: Care that began within the first trimester and included an average of at least one or two additional prenatal visits per month of gestation, depending on the length of gestation.

Intermediate: Care that began during the second trimester of pregnancy with correspondingly fewer visits, or began during the first trimester but with fewer visits than would be appropriate for the length of gestation.

Inadequate: When no care was received or if care began during the third trimester. It is also inadequate if care began during the first or second trimester but less than five visits occurred, when the length of gestation was 34 weeks or more. When the length of gestation was less than 34 weeks, care is defined as inadequate when care began during the first or second trimester but a number of visits less that four occurred, that number depending on the actual weeks of gestation.

Records with unknown level of prenatal care are included only in the total row.


Low Birthweight
Live births weighing less than 2,500 grams.

Source: 2015 Geocoded Michigan Birth Certificate Registry.
Division for Vital Records & Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Health & Human Services