Live Births by Kessner Index
and Race & Ancestry of Mother
Michigan 2016
Kessner Index RaceHispanic
Ancestry
Arab
Ancestry
All RacesWhiteBlackAmerican
Indian
Asian &
Pacific Islander
Total113,374  83,388  21,523  694  4,548  7,759  5,007  
Adequate77,709  59,920  12,201  429  3,301  4,639  3,364  
Intermediate25,040  17,246  5,944  190  926  2,032  1,028  
Inadequate10,613  6,213  3,377  75  321  1,087  615  

Percent Distribution of Live Births by Kessner Index
and Race & Ancestry of Mother
Michigan 2016
Kessner Index RaceHispanic
Ancestry
Arab
Ancestry
All RacesWhiteBlackAmerican
Indian
Asian &
Pacific Islander
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Adequate68.571.956.761.872.659.867.2
Intermediate22.120.727.627.420.426.220.5
Inadequate9.47.515.710.87.114.012.3


Notes:

Kessner Index: The Kessner Index is a classification of prenatal care based on the month of pregnancy in which prenatal care began, the number of prenatal visits and the length of pregnancy (i.e. for shorter pregnancies, fewer prenatal visits constitute adequate care.)

Kessner Index Measurement Definitions:

Adequate: Care that began within the first trimester and included an average of at least one or two additional prenatal visits per month of gestation, depending on the length of gestation.

Intermediate: Care that began during the second trimester of pregnancy with correspondingly fewer visits, or began during the first trimester but with fewer visits than would be appropriate for the length of gestation.

Inadequate: When no care was received or if care began during the third trimester. It is also inadequate if care began during the first or second trimester but less than five visits occurred, when the length of gestation was 34 weeks or more. When the length of gestation was less than 34 weeks, care is defined as inadequate when care began during the first or second trimester but a number of visits less that four occurred, that number depending on the actual weeks of gestation.

Records with unknown level of prenatal care are included only in the total row.



Source: 2016 Geocoded Michigan Birth Certificate Registry.
Division for Vital Records & Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Health & Human Services