Race & Ancestry of MotherKessner Index
TotalAdequateIntermediateInadequate
Live BirthsLow BirthweightRateLive BirthsLow BirthweightRateLive BirthsLow BirthweightRateLive BirthsLow BirthweightRate
Number of Low Birthweight Live Births and Rate of Low Birthweight Live Births by Race & Ancestry of Mother
and Kessner Index
Michigan 2015
Total113,211  9,611  84.976,051  5,715  75.126,506  2,458  92.710,639  1,436  135.0
White82,938  5,789  69.858,446  3,626  62.018,175  1,452  79.96,304  709  112.5
Black21,457  3,097  144.312,075  1,657  137.26,113  823  134.63,268  617  188.8
American Indian631  54  85.6392  29  74.0193  20  103.646  5  108.7
Asian & Pacific Islander3,888  353  90.82,697  231  85.7903  83  91.9288  39  135.4
Hispanic7,768  582  74.94,545  334  73.52,194  164  74.71,029  84  81.6
Mid Easterner4,872  343  70.43,116  208  66.81,051  84  79.9705  51  72.3

Notes:

Rates are per 1,000 live births.


Kessner Index: The Kessner Index is a classification of prenatal care based on the month of pregnancy in which prenatal care began, the number of prenatal visits and the length of pregnancy (i.e. for shorter pregnancies, fewer prenatal visits constitute adequate care.)

Kessner Index Measurement Definitions:

Adequate: Care that began within the first trimester and included an average of at least one or two additional prenatal visits per month of gestation, depending on the length of gestation.

Intermediate: Care that began during the second trimester of pregnancy with correspondingly fewer visits, or began during the first trimester but with fewer visits than would be appropriate for the length of gestation.

Inadequate: When no care was received or if care began during the third trimester. It is also inadequate if care began during the first or second trimester but less than five visits occurred, when the length of gestation was 34 weeks or more. When the length of gestation was less than 34 weeks, care is defined as inadequate when care began during the first or second trimester but a number of visits less that four occurred, that number depending on the actual weeks of gestation.

Records with unknown level of prenatal care are included only in the total row.


Low Birthweight
Live births weighing less than 2,500 grams.

Source: 2015 Geocoded Michigan Birth Certificate Registry.
Division for Vital Records & Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Health & Human Services