Birth Defects Prevalence and Mortality Tables
Division for Vital Records & Health Statistics
Michigan Department of Health & Human Services
The Michigan Birth Defects Registry was established as a statewide reporting system in 1992 to develop statistical data on birth defects; to conduct birth defect surveillance; to conduct studies of birth defect causes and prevention; and to insure the families of children with birth defects receive appropriate support services.
This web page provides a series of tables with birth defect prevalence and mortality data through 2013 for the State of Michigan, Michigan counties and local health department districts. Local area data can be viewed at Community Health Information Birth Defects Site.
Selected high points concerning these data are:
- Birth Defect Cases and Case Rates
In the years 2012 and 2013, there were 11,357 and 11,852 cases of birth defects reported for children under one year of age, respectively. The 2012-2013 average rate was about 1,025 cases per 10,000 resident live births. For the same children born during 2012, there were an additional 819 cases reported for children of two years of age. In other words, for infants born in 2012, there were 1,080 birth defects per 10,000 resident live births, an increase of 11% from 2010. Between 2004 to 2013, the ten-year average prevalence rate for two-year olds based upon reported cases was about 977 per 10,000 live births. (See Birth Defects Cases and Case Rates.)
- Infant Death Rates
In 2013, infants born with a birth defect were 4 times more likely to die than other infants. The infant death rate for children born in 2013 with a reportable birth defect was 28.3 per 1,000, but the overall infant death rate was 7.2 per 1,000 resident infants born in Michigan during the same year. Birth defect rates were higher between 2011-2013 than the rates between 2008-2010, but the rate of infant deaths born with birth defects declined. (See Mortality Rates Among Children.)
- Mortality Risk
A higher mortality risk can be expected for children with birth defects well beyond the first year of life. The cumulative mortality rate for resident children under 2 years of age born during 2012 was 7.6 per 1,000. Children born during 2012 with a birth defect had a cumulative mortality rate of 27.4 per 1,000 by the end of the second year of life. The mortality rate differential remains high throughout early childhood. For deaths under the age of 18 years, the experience of children born in 1996 indicates death rates of 61.0 per 1,000 for children with birth defects and 12.5 per 1,000 for children generally. The significantly higher mortality rate for children with birth defects underscores the seriousness of these conditions. (See Cumulative Mortality Among Children.)
- Birth Defects By Diagnostic
The three most common diagnostic categories reported in 2013 were musculoskeletal system defects (2,281 cases), heart and circulatory system defects (1,878 cases) and anomalies of the genital and urinary systems (1,499 cases). (See Birth Defects by Diagnostic Code Group by Birth Year.)
With regard to mortality, the number of deaths between 2011-2013 for children with heart and circulatory anomalies was 311, about 3 times that of other leading causes of birth defect related deaths. Infant mortality rates were highest for the chromosomal anomalies (110.7 per 1,000 born with the defect) and for central nervous system anomalies (80.2 per 1,000), based upon mortality among the 2011-2013 birth cohorts. (See Infant Deaths to Michigan Children with Reported Birth Defects and Mortality Rates.) Mortality rates averaged over six years allow for the stable estimates of birth defect death rates by detailed diagnositic code groups. Birth defects mortality were highest for certain rare congenital anomalies: Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome) was 700 per 1,000; Trisomy 18 (Edward Syndrome) was 489.6 per 1,000; and Anencephalus was 571.4 per 1,000. (See Mortality Rates of Michigan Children with Reported Birth Defects by Detailed Diagnostic Code Group.)
Tables describing detailed condition information also include numbers.
three potential sources of error in these data, especially at the county level:
- Data are based on passive reporting which means it is the responsibility of facilities to identify and report cases of birth defects. Not all facilities report cases as completely and timely as would be the ideal.
- Some facilities report children with a birth defect that is later "ruled out" resulting in an over count of the actual number of cases.
- Children diagnosed and treated in facilities in other states may be missed which will significantly affect the completeness of data for Michiganís border counties.